We derive daily market‐based domestic long‐term inflation expectations for eight countries without inflation swap markets. To do so, we use foreign inflation swaps together with (1) foreign and domestic interest rate swaps assuming that purchasing power parity (PPP) and uncovered interest rate parity (UIP) hold or together with (2) spot and forward exchange rates assuming that PPP, UIP and covered interest rate parity (CIP) hold. We confirm the plausibility of our PPP‐UIP and PPP‐UIC‐CIP measures by also applying these methods for countries with inflation swap markets. We moreover illustrate how the data can be used to answer such questions as whether inflation reacts to long‐term inflation expectations, whether these expectations are well‐anchored and how long‐term real interest rates have moved over the past decade.
This paper studies the transmission of changes in short-term interest rates to longer-term government bond yields when interest rates are at very low levels or negative. We focus on Switzerland, where short-term interest rates have been at zero since late 2008 and negative since the beginning of 2015. The expectations hypothesis of the term structure implies that as nominal interest rates approach their lower bound, the eﬀect of short-term rates on longer-term yields should decline, and positive short rate changes should have larger absolute eﬀects than negative short rate changes. Contrary to studies of other countries, we ﬁnd no evidence for a decline in the eﬀect of short rate changes for the low-interest rate period using Swiss data. However, we do ﬁnd evidence for the predicted asymmetric eﬀect for positive and negative short rate changes during the period when short-term rates are close to zero. This asymmetry normalized again after the introduction of negative interest rates.
This paper investigates time variation in the dynamics of international portfolio equity ﬂows. We extend the empirical model of Hau and Rey (2004) by embedding a two-state Markov regime-switching model into the structural VAR. The model is estimated using monthly data for the period 1995-2015 on equity returns, exchange rate returns and equity ﬂows between the United States and advanced and emerging economies. We ﬁnd that the data are consistent with portfolio rebalancing. The estimated states match periods of low and high ﬁnancial stress. Our main result is that for equity ﬂows between the United States and emerging markets, the rebalancing dynamics diﬀer between high and low episodes of ﬁnancial stress. A switch from the low to the high stress regime is associated with capital outﬂows from emerging markets. Once in the high stress regime, the response of capital ﬂows to exchange rate shocks is smaller than in normal (low stress) periods.
We analyze how the transmission of international inﬂation spillovers depends on the nature of the underlying shocks that drive inﬂation abroad. We ﬁnd evidence for substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude of spillovers to domestic inﬂation related to the fundamental source of international price ﬂuctuations and the corresponding monetary policy reactions. Indeed, it turns out that the relative conduct of monetary policy varies depending on the source of these price ﬂuctuations, and so does the role of the exchange rate as a shock absorber. We show this by looking at international inﬂation spillovers to Switzerland through the lenses of a Bayesian structural dynamic factor model relating a large set of disaggregated prices to key macroeconomic factors. Being a small open economy with an independent monetary policy, Switzerland is a particularly suitable subject for studying the role of monetary policy in the transmission of foreign shocks. However, our results more broadly indicate that inﬂation spillovers need to be analyzed in a framework allowing for diﬀerent transmission channels.
For policy institutions such as central banks, it is important to have a timely and ac-curate measure of past and current economic activity and the business cycle situation. The most prominent example for such a measure is gross domestic product (GDP). However, GDP is only released at a quarterly frequency and with a substantial delay. Furthermore, it captures elements that are not directly linked to the business cycle and the underlying momentum of the economy. In this paper, I construct a new business cycle index for the Swiss economy, which uses state-of-the-art methods, is available at a monthly frequency and can be calculated in real-time, even when some indicators are not yet available for the most recent periods. The index is based on a large and broad set of monthly and quarterly indicators. As I show, for the case of Switzerland, it is important to base a business-cycle index on a broad set of indicators instead of only a small subset. This result contrasts with the results for other countries.